Lessons in the property market by Tim Martin
JD Wetherspoon has always been a buyer of freeholds. Our second, third and fourth pubs were freehold and, by the time of our 1992 flotation, 20 of our 44 pubs were freehold.
I negotiated our first 20 or so pubs myself, dealing directly with the owners’ agents, before employing Christian Braun of Van de Berg & Co in about 1990. Little did I realise that Braun was a double agent or “mole”, who was to burrow deep into our organisation, undermining the very property foundations that underpin any retailer.
Following a tip-off in 2005, we terminated VDB’s contract and undertook a review of all our 600 or so property transactions, using a team of up to a dozen legal and paralegal staff. We discovered about 50 “back-to-back” transactions in which freeholds, which were available to buy, had been diverted by VDB to third parties, who had acquired them at the same time as JDW had taken a lease – the rent being set at a level which created an immediate uplift in the value of the reversion.
Proceedings were issued against VDB and its directors, Braun, George Aldridge and Richard Harvey in respect of about a dozen of these transactions. In a 136-page judgment Mr Justice Peter Smith found that VDB had fraudulently diverted properties to a number of third parties, but he made no findings against the third parties themselves.
Following Mr Justice Smith’s judgment, JDW issued proceedings against a number of third parties: Paul Ferrari of Braun’s former employer Ferrari Dewe & Co; Anthony Lyons, formerly of Davis Coffer Lyons; and Jason Harris, formerly of First London.
Liability was denied by all. The cases were contested and were settled out of court. JDW received substantial payments in all three cases.
A number of the pleaded properties in the VDB case, referred to by the judge as the “Ferrari Five”, involved Jersey companies with nominee owners that were connected to Ferrari. Each of the Jersey companies had a different name and care was taken to use different lawyers and nominees. Profits from the purchasing companies were usually channelled to a Jersey holding company called Gecko and money was then transferred as loans or fees to companies controlled by VDB directors.
In my opinion, the Lyons case is the most interesting for the property market and for prospective tenants and purchasers. Lyons stated in his defence that he was acting in his capacity as an employee and in accordance with his duties to Davis and Coffer (now Davis Coffer Lyons).
The Lyons case concerned properties in Portsmouth, Leytonstone and Newbury, two of which became JDW pubs, with the third becoming a Café Rouge. The Portsmouth property belonged to British Gas and Justice Smith found that VDB bid for the freehold, unbeknown to JDW, and, once the bid was accepted, agreed with Lyons for JDW to take a lease and for the freehold to be acquired by Moorstown Properties, owned by a friend, and subsequently a colleague of Lyons, Simon Conway. No findings were made against Lyons, or indeed Conway, in the VDB case, and neither person was a party to the case.
Portsmouth was subsequently sold by Moorstown to Scottish American Investment Company a few months later with the benefit of a lease to JDW for a substantial profit. Illustrating the Byzantine complexity of the transactions, Lyons’ defence stated that shares in Moorstown were “transferred”, before the sale was completed, to Northcreek which, Companies House shows, was owned by Roger Myers, then chairman of Café Rouge owner Pelican, and his family.
The Newbury property was acquired by Riverside Stores, a company connected to Conway, and was leased at around the same time to Café Rouge. Newbury was sold shortly after completion for a substantial profit.
JDW did not allege, and is not alleging, that the Portsmouth and Newbury transactions are connected, and is not alleging that Davis Coffer Lyons, Myers or Conway are dishonest, but it is a matter of public importance, as well as of importance to JDW and its shareholders, for there to be an explanation as to the circumstances in which Moorstown, a company which clearly benefitted from the Portsmouth fraud by VDB, ended up belonging to the family of Myers.
A key legal and ethical question for the property market that emerges from these cases concerns the obligations of estate agents and investors in circumstances in which a freehold property is first offered to a friend or colleague of an agent, who agrees to acquire it, and the property is then offered by the agent to a company like Wetherspoon on a “back to back” basis. What are the obligations of the introducing agent? In broad terms, the third parties in the Wetherspoon litigation argued that they owed no duties or obligations to Wetherspoon and were not therefore liable to us. The great risk that all agents and investors run in these circumstances is if the retained agent, VDB in this instance, is itself dishonest. If so, this may open up the possibility of a claim by an aggrieved “end user” such as Wetherspoon that the introducing agent participated in the dishonesty of the retained agent.
JDW has lost many tens of millions of pounds as a result of the VDB frauds. Rent reviews and “yield compression” have exacerbated the damage over the years.
Our experience teaches a number of lessons. First, buyers and tenants should ask their agents to confirm in writing that they have no direct or indirect interest in any property they are acquiring and should ask their lawyers to take particular interest if a freehold is changing hands at the same time as they are acquiring a lease, or indeed the freehold.
Professionals and investors should also get confirmation in writing from the “end user” in back-to-back deals that they have consented to the transaction. Take the retained agent’s word for it at your peril.
Tim Martin is founder and chairman of JD Wetherspoon